(mod. Colchester) Substantial earthworks surrounded an iron age oppidum of the Augustan period. This was the capital and mint of Cunobel(l)inus. Captured in Claudius' campaign of ad 43, a fortress of legion XX Valeria was constructed beside it, and in 49 a colony was founded on the site of the fortress. This became the first provincial capital, with the temple of Divus Claudius and a theatre with an adjacent forum. This unwalled town was sacked by Boudicca in 60/1 and later rebuilt to cover an area of c.43 ha. (106 acres). Its defences were a clay bank to which, it appears, a stone wall was added in the early 2nd cent.
Subjects: Classical Studies — Religion.