Overview

Canadian Indians


'Canadian Indians' can also refer to...

Canadian Indians

Canadian Indians

Canadian Indians

Healing Histories: Stories from Canada’s Indian Hospitals. By Laurie Meijer Drees.

Beyond the “Indian Problem”: Aboriginal Peoples and the Transformation of Canada

Canada: ‘If they treat the Indians humanely, all will be well’

Nobility Lost: French and Canadian Martial Cultures, Indians, and the End of New France

SORABJI, Cornelia (died 1954), retired; formerly Barrister-at-law, High Court, Calcutta, and Lecturer in America and Canada on Indian topics

SOPER, J. Dewey (1893 - 1982), naturalist, explorer; Canadian Wildlife Service, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa, retired November 1952

Christian Ayne Crouch. Nobility Lost: French and Canadian Martial Cultures, Indians, and the End of New France.

Noble, Wretched, & Redeemable: Protestant Missionaries to the Indians in Canada and the United States, 1820–1900

What Is the Indian “Problem”: Tutelage and Resistance in Canadian Indian Administration. By Noel Dyck. (St. John's: Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1991. xii, 208 pp. Paper, ISBN 0-919666-72-8.)

Indians in the United States and Canada: A Comparative History. By Roger L. Nichols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. xvii, 383 pp. $60.00, ISBN 0-8032-3341-8.)

Bruce Vandervort. Indian Wars of Mexico, Canada, and the United States, 1812–1900. (Warfare and History.) New York: Routledge. 2006. Pp. xvii, 337. $34.00

Treaty between the Canadian Government (Great Britain) and the Salteaux and Swampy Cree Tribes of North American Indians, signed at Berens' River/Norway House, 20/24 September 1875

Noble, Wretched,&Redeemable: Protestant Missionaries to the Indians in Canada and the United States, 1820–1900. By C. L. Higham. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000. viii, 283 pp. $39.95, ISBN 0-8263-2165-8.)

Indian Treaty-Making Policy in the United States and Canada, 1867–1877. By Jill St. Germain. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001. xxiv, 243 pp. $45.00, ISBN 0-8032-4282-4.)

BILES, John Harvard (1854 - 1933), Hon. Vice-President Institution of Naval Architects; MInstCE, MSoc. Nav. Arch., USA; Hon. Memb. Japanese Society of Naval Architects; Order of Osmanieh, 3rd class, 1906; Naval Constructor, Admiralty, 1877–81; Naval Architect and Manager to Clydebank Shipyard, 1881–90; Professor of Naval Architecture, Glasgow University, 1891–1921; has served on Admiralty Departmental Committees on Mercantile Auxiliaries, 1901, Torpedo Boat Destroyer Committee, 1902–03, Warship Designs, 1905; Board of Trade Departmental Committee on Tonnage, 1905–06; Past Master of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights; President Engineering Section British Association, 1911; Chairman Boats and Davits Committee, 1912–13; Assessor on Titanic Enquiry, 1912; British Delegate on International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea, 1913; Chairman Admiralty Committee on Submarine Cargo Vessels, 1917; Member Indian Mercantile Marine Committee, 1923–24; Member of Committee on Royal Dockyards and their organization, 1925; Chairman Engineering Joint Council, 1925–26; is Consulting Naval Architect to the High Commissioner for India, and received thanks of Secretary of State in Council for the satisfactory results of the designing and supervising the construction of the river craft for the Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia, 1916–18; has professionally visited India, Australia, United States of America, Canada, Japan, and China, and nearly all European countries

 

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Contemporary History (Post 1945)

GO

Show Summary Details

Quick Reference

Overview

A term used to refer to the aboriginal people of Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis, and encompassing a wide variety of distinct peoples. Linguistically, Canadian Indians can be broken up into ten language families, ranging from Algonquian (with over 115,000 speakers in 1986) to Haida and Kutenai (with 200 speakers each in 1986). Legally, Canadian Indians are said to be ‘status’ Indians or ‘nonstatus’ Indians. Nonstatus Indians are those who, especially by intermarriage, have lost the legal rights granted to status Indians by the federal government. In 1987 there were approximately 360,000 status Indians in Canada.

Early policies (1900–45)

The twentieth century saw many changes in the lives of all of Canada's native peoples. Throughout the first quarter of the twentieth century several Canadian Indian groups signed treaties with the federal government, by which they surrendered their title to large tracts of lands in return for certain federal rights and benefits, such as exemption from most federal and provincial taxes. By 1929 treaties had been signed covering most of the territory in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. This period also saw the continued numerical decline of the native population due mainly to disease and the loss of traditional food supplies.

Aided by missionaries who often acted as mediators between the native peoples and government officials, a self‐consciousness slowly emerged among some of the peoples during the 1920s, in protest against their treatment. In British Columbia, for example, the Allied Tribes of British Columbia was set up in 1915, and the Native Brotherhood of British Columbia in 1931. However, this evolution of protest was slowed down by the Great Depression, which caused particular distress in the reservations and led many Indians to leave them for the cities.

The post‐war era (1945–98)

After World War II, the Canadian Indians became more vociferous in demanding a restoration of their rights. More important for the change in government policy was that their marginalization and discrimination became publicly less acceptable among the majority of Canadians descended from immigrants. A redefinition of Indian status was attempted in 1951, but rejected as insufficient by the Indian peoples demanding the settlement of their land claims. In the 1960s, the government became active in creating employment opportunities in the reservations, and in preserving Indian cultures. Yet the Indian peoples' hopes were further dashed by a 1969 White Paper, which once again failed to address adequately the issue of their land claims.

In response, the native peoples created a network of pressure groups, which were often supported by the government, to enable them to formulate a coherent and united set of proposals. In 1982 they successfully lobbied for the insertion of a clause stating their land claims in the Constitution Act (Canadian Constitution, patriation of). In 1983, a House of Commons Special Committee recommended the creation of Indian self‐government within the provincial and national framework.

The economic and educational situation of Canadian Indians improved vastly after World War II. Their average income has increased, though it is still two‐thirds of that of an average Canadian of immigrant descent. Their education is now almost equivalent to that of a White Canadian, and overall discrimination in Canadian society has declined markedly. In 1991 the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was launched, which became the most comprehensive and expensive government investigation to date. It found that traditional Canadian law had failed the native peoples, and that each people should receive and administer its own system of justice according to its own traditions and values.

[...]

Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).


Reference entries

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.