The transport of carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs. Between 60% and 80% is carried in the plasma as hydrogen carbonate ions, formed from carbonic acid in a reaction catalysed by carbonic anhydrase. A small percentage of carbon dioxide is transported in solution and as carbaminohaemoglobin. A series of chemical reactions enables carbon dioxide to be unloaded from the blood at the lungs. The carbon dioxide then diffuses into the alveoli along a concentration gradient and is expired into the atmosphere.
Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.