German Reformer, so named from his birthplace. From 1505 he taught at Wittenberg. In 1518 he supported M. Luther's criticism of indulgences and in 1519 he disputed publicly with J. Eck. He was excommunicated in 1520 and announced his break with the Papacy. In 1521 he celebrated the Eucharist in the vernacular, the first Reformer to do so; he wore no vestments, abandoned the Canon of the Mass, made no reference to sacrifice, and gave Communion to the laity in both kinds. His programme of reform at this stage was more radical than Luther's; he came into conflict with him and resigned his academic position in 1523. In 1534 he was appointed preacher at the university church and professor of Hebrew at Basle.