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An ancient city on the coast of North Africa near present-day Tunis. Founded by the Phoenicians c.814 bc, Carthage became a major force in the Mediterranean, and came into conflict with Rome in the Punic Wars. It was finally destroyed by the Romans in 146 bc; at the time it was decreed that the destruction should be complete, with no houses or crops surviving (see delenda est Carthago), although in the 1st century bc it was to be refounded by Julius Caesar. A Carthaginian peace is a peace settlement which imposes very severe terms on the defeated side.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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