Under the Civil Procedure Rules, a central feature of case management at which the judge reviews the progress of the case preparation, including the degree of compliance with Practice Directions and pre-action protocols. Legal representatives who are to attend the trial should normally attend this hearing and the judge is able to make further directions as are considered necessary. A CMC may be either an oral hearing, or if specifically directed, via telephone conference. A case management conference may also be used in some family cases. See pretrial review. See also plea and case management hearing.