A monastic congregation of Benedictine monks which owes its origin to a reform initiated by Ludovico Barbo at Padua in 1409. The aim of the reformers was to overcome the evil of appointing abbots in commendam, and the congregation was characterized until the 20th cent. by the overall authority of the General Chapter and the centralized system of appointing abbots on a temporary basis. It took its present title after the accession of Monte Cassino in 1504. See also Subiaco Congregation.