Ramón Castilla


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Peruvian statesman. As President (1845–51, 1855–62), he encouraged railway development and telegraphic communication, and supported the commercial use of the guano (the nitrogen-rich droppings of fish-eating seabirds) as a fertilizer. He developed the nitrate industries by establishing government monopolies and leasing them to private individuals. He abolished slavery, and freed the Peruvian Indian from tribute payments.

Subjects: World History.

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