Peruvian statesman. As President (1845–51, 1855–62), he encouraged railway development and telegraphic communication, and supported the commercial use of the guano (the nitrogen-rich droppings of fish-eating seabirds) as a fertilizer. He developed the nitrate industries by establishing government monopolies and leasing them to private individuals. He abolished slavery, and freed the Peruvian Indian from tribute payments.
Subjects: World History.