In human geography, those forces which encourage a movement of people, business, and industry away from central urban areas; these include: intra-city location costs (Anas (2004) J. Econ. Geog. 4), improvements in transport systems (Alonso-Vilar, ECINEQ WP2006–57), the needs of spatially dispersed clients (Grote (2007) J. Econ. Geog. 8, 2); and knowledge spillovers (Baldwin and Forslid (2000) Economica 67). Koch (2007) UN Univ. Res. Paper2007/45, lists the dispersion of demand, reputation (a new organization might takes risks that, if successful, would raise their profile), competition effects (where organizations locate away from direct competitors), and high transport costs (when a business might locate near the end-users).
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.