Dutch painter, sculptor, and graphic artist. He was born at Sprang and spent most of his life in Rotterdam, where he studied at the Academy. In his early work he experimented with Cubism, but he turned to Expressionism and became one of his country's leading exponents of the style. He is best known for his paintings depicting the Netherlands during the German Occupation in the Second World War. His subjects included refugees, prisoners of war, and Resistance fighters, depicted with great pathos. The bombardment of Rotterdam in May 1940 destroyed his studio and many of his works. After the war his paintings became lighter in colour and spirit. There is a museum of his work near Rotterdam.
From A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art in Oxford Reference.