The town of Chaeronea commands the route south down the Cephissus valley. In 338 bc Philip II of Macedon won a crushing victory over an alliance of southern Greek states, led by Athens and Thebes, effectively putting an end to the era of the independent polis. It is not certain how the victory was won. The stone lion east of the modern village clearly commemorates the battle, but its precise significance is unknown: it may mark the resting‐place of the Theban élite ‘Sacred Band’—254 skeletons were found nearby. In 86 Sulla won a victory here over the army of Mithradates VI of Pontus.
Subjects: Classical Studies.