Ottoman administrator and reformer of the Tanzimat period who tried to balance secular and religious influences in the empire. Received an Islamic education in Istanbul. In 1851 he collaborated with the Porte's translator, Fuad Pasha, to publish a standard grammar of modern Ottoman Turkish. During the 1860s he oversaw the implementation of reforms, first as inspector general in Bosnia-Herzegovina and later as governor of Aleppo in Syria. From 1868 to 1876, as president of the Council of Judicial Ordinances and later as minister of justice, he completed work on a new civil code, known as the Mecelle (law collection), that combined Islamic and Western elements. In 1873 became minister of pious foundations (awqaf) and the following year minister of education. After 1876 served as head of a number of ministries during the reign of Abdulhamid II.