A big peninsula projecting from Macedonia and ending in three promontories, was inhabited originally by the Sithonians. Their name survived in ‘Sithonia’, the central promontory between the western ‘Pallene’ and the eastern ‘Acte’. The first Greek colonists from Chalcis in the 8th cent. bc dispossessed the Sithonians and founded c.30 settlements, perhaps giving the name ‘Chalcidice’ to the entire peninsula. Eretria and Andros also founded colonies.
Followers perforce of Xerxes, the cities joined the Delian League and became subjects of Athens. Revolting in 432/1 they established a common capital at Olynthus, thus inaugurating the ‘Chalcidic Confederacy’. (See federal states.) The member cities shared a common citizenship and common laws; the confederacy struck a magnificent silver coinage.
Subjects: Classical Studies.