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The chief city of Euboea throughout antiquity, controlling the narrowest part of the Euripus channel and (after 411 bc) a bridge to the mainland. In the 8th cent. Chalcis, with its neighbour Eretria, planted colonies in Italy and Sicily. In the later 8th cent. it disputed with Eretria possession of the Lelantine plain, which lay between them (see Greece (History); lefkandi). In the 7th cent. colonies were sent to the north Aegean. A centre of trade and manufacture, Chalcis was famous for its metalwork. In 506 it was compelled to cede part of its plain to Athenian cleruchs (see Cleruchy). The city made common cause, however, with Athens during the invasion of Xerxes. It led a revolt of Euboea against Athens (446) but was defeated and became a tributary ally until 411.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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