(b Kazan, 1873; d Paris, 1938).
Russ. bass. Of humble orig., having little mus. training before joining provincial opera co. 1890. Sang in St Petersburg Imperial Opera 1894–6, then joined Mamontov's private opera co. in Moscow, singing Ivan in Rimsky‐Korsakov's Maid of Pskov and especially Boris Godunov in Mussorgsky's opera, role with which he became inseparably assoc. Member of Bolshoy Opera, Moscow, 1899–1914. La Scala début 1901 (Boito's Mefistofele), NY Met 1907 (Mefistofele), London 1913–14 in Beecham's Drury Lane season (début as Boris, 1913). Sang in four of Diaghilev's Paris seasons between 1908 and 1913. NY Met 1921–9. Created title‐role of Massenet's Don Quichotte (Monte Carlo 1910). Gave frequent recitals. Superb actor‐singer. Appeared in two films.