The first expedition to explore the deep oceans, led by John Murray (1841–1914), in the British naval ship HMS Challenger. With a staff of biologists, chemists, and geologists, the expedition surveyed the Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Pacific Oceans, taking soundings and collecting specimens in dredges. Results of research into the material collected during the expedition were published between 1880 and 1895 as a long series of reports. The extent of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was first demonstrated by the crew of the Challenger. See also Thomson, Sir Charles Wyville.
Subjects: Ecology and Conservation.