(b. 4 July 1901, d. 14 Oct. 2001).
Chinese warlord Born in Taishan County (Liaoning), son of the warlord Chang Tso‐lin, he graduated from the Military Institute and soon distinguished himself in his father's army. In 1926, he reluctantly fought Chiang Kai‐shek's National Revolutionary Army during its Northern Expedition. Known as the ‘Young Marshal’, he inherited control of Manchuria in 1928 when his father was murdered by officers of the Japanese Guandong Army. Fully appreciating the danger from Japan's expansionism in the region, he sought to develop his territory economically (e.g. through the building of railways), educationally (through the foundation of the Northeastern University), and through a military build‐up. At the same time, he accepted the authority of the Guomindang government in Nanjing (Nanking). With many of his troops dispatched at Chiang Kai‐shek's demand, he was powerless to prevent the Japanese invasion into Manchuria in 1931 (Manchukuo). He remained an important ally to Chiang, and successfully urged him to form an anti‐Japanese alliance with the Communists, mainly by placing him under house arrest until he agreed. Chiang never forgave him for this, and had him arrested soon afterwards. He was taken to Taiwan in 1949, and lived under house arrest until Chiang's death. Released in 1990, he moved to Hawaii in 1995, where he died.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).