Family of Fr. vn.‐makers. François (b Mirecourt, 1787; d Brest, 1823) invented a pear‐shaped vn. with flat belly and no sound‐post. His brother Georges (b Mirecourt, 1801; d Courcelles, 1873) set up his business in Paris in 1823 and his son Georges (b Paris, 1831; d London, 1893) began his own business in London in 1858.