In psychoanalysis, a type of neurosis in which psychological conflict manifests itself in the form of character traits or patterns of behaviour rather than clearly identifiable signs (1) or symptoms. It is exemplified in articles by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) in 1908 on ‘Character and Anal Erotism’ (Standard Edition, IX, pp. 169–75), in 1916 on ‘Some Character Types Met With in Psycho-Analytic Work’ (Standard Edition, XIV, pp. 311–33), and in 1931 on ‘Libidinal Types’ (Standard Edition, XXI, pp. 215–20). It was used extensively in the theories of the Austrian-born (later US-based) psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich (1897–1957), especially in his book Charakteranalyse (Character Analysis) published in 1933.