King of France (1824–30). As the Comte d'Artois, the dissolute and reactionary brother of Louis XVI, he was ordered by the king to leave France in 1789 and became the leader of the exiled royalists. He returned to France in 1814 and during the reign of his next brother, Louis XVIII, led the ultra-royalist party. His proclamation to rule by divine right and his choice of ministers who did not reflect liberal majorities in Parliament led to unrest. The defeat of an unpopular ministry in June 1830 prompted him to issue the July Ordinances, which established rigid control of the press, dissolved the newly elected chamber, and restricted suffrage. These measures enraged the populace and he was forced, in the July Revolution, to abdicate. After the succession of Louis Philippe, he returned to Britain.
Subjects: World History.