(b Mexico City, 1899; d Mexico City, 1978).
Mex. composer and conductor. Début as composer 1921. Travelled in Eur. and USA 1922–8. Wrote for Mexico City newspaper El Universal 1924, contributing to it regularly for rest of his life. Lived in NY 1926–8, forming friendships with Copland, Cowell, and Varèse. Dir., Nat. Cons. of Mexico 1928–34. Cond. Mexico SO 1928–48. Founder and dir., Mexican Nat. Institute of Fine Arts 1947–52. Dir., composers' workshop, Nat. Cons. 1960–5. Cond. f.p. of Copland's El salón Mexicó, 1937. Comps. incl. 6 syms.; pf. conc.; vn. conc.; opera The Visitors (lib. by Kallman) (1953–6); ballet Caballos de Vapor (Horse Power) (1926–7). Nationalist style but rarely used folk material.