Opera in 4 acts by Tchaikovsky to lib. by Polonsky, amplified by composer and N. Chayev, based on Gogol story Christmas Eve. Comp. 1885, being a revision of Vakula the Smith, 1876. Prod. Moscow 1887, NY 1922, London (London Univ.) 1984, Wexford 1993. Rimsky‐Korsakov's Christmas Eve (1894–5) is based on same story.