(b. 8 Oct. 1879, d. 27 May 1942).
Chinese Communist leader Born at An‐ch'ing (Anhwei Province) of wealthy parents, he sat the civil service (chü‐jen) examination before going to Japan to further his studies. Following the 1911 Revolution Chen founded the New Culture Movement, which he promoted with the nationwide magazine, The New Youth. This offered a platform for a large number of intellectuals and thinkers urging enlightened progress. In 1917, he was appointed dean of the college of letters at Beijing University. He became increasingly critical of republican institutions, which were riven with factionalism and corruption. He turned towards Marxism‐Leninism, and became a co‐founder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. He built up an independent and effective organization and provided widely accepted autocratic but moderate leadership, until the withdrawal of Stalin's support. Chen was dismissed in 1927, and expelled from the party in 1929. He became a Trotskyist, but was imprisoned 1932–7, after which he retired.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).