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(Chinese, breath, vital spirit, force)

The vital force, in particular as it is expressed in the combination of passive and active principles (yin and yang). In some Chinese philosophy chi plays something of the role of Aristotelian form, being what distinguishes and individuates particular things, and what is lost with the death or dissolution of anything. In Confucianism it also refers to whatever is material or corporeal. Chi is frequently opposed to li or principle.

Subjects: Religion.

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