Oratorio by Tippett for sop., cont., ten., and bass soloists, ch. and orch. Comp. 1939–41, f.p. 1944. Lib. by composer based on persecution of Jews begun after assassination of Nazi official vom Rath by Jewish boy Grynspan at Ger. Legation, Paris, autumn 1938. Uses Negro spirituals in manner of Bach's chorales in his Passions.