A war that evolved from the collapse of the United Front in 1945. As Japan surrendered, Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Guomindang (KMT) forces moved quickly to occupy the areas vacated by the Japanese, with CCP control concentrated in the north and north-east. Following the breakdown of negotiations led by George Marshall, fighting broke out in February 1946. Supported by the US military, the KMT forces scored a number of early victories. Ultimately, the Communists' superior popular base and organization prevailed. The KMT forces lost around 500,000 men in battles (1947–8), and another 500,000 in the decisive confrontation at Huai‐Hai. In the following months, the Nationalist government collapsed, and was evacuated to Taiwan in December 1949, where its leader, Chiang Kai‐shek, re‐formed a nationalist government in 1950. On the Chinese mainland, the Communist People's Republic of China was established on 1 October 1949, under the leadership of Mao Zedong.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — Military History.