Indian modernist author who rose to prominence as a supporter of Sayyid Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh movement. Served as revenue and political secretary in Hyderabad (1877). Agreed with Sir Sayyid that there was no conflict between the Quran and modern science. Produced modernist apologetics designed to refute missionary and orientalist criticisms of Islam as incapable of reform, and to argue that Islam requires no particular political or social system. Championed women's education and criticized polygyny and divorce. Works were influential among Western-educated Muslims in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.