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A Tamil Hindu dynasty dominant in south India from the 9th to the 13th century. Their origins are uncertain, but they were influential from at least the 3rd century ad, becoming an imperial power on the overthrow of their Pallava neighbours in the late 9th century. Victory over the Pandyas followed, and then expansion into the Deccan, Orissa, and Sri Lanka. Their peak was during the reigns of Rajaraja I (985–1014) and Rajendra I (1014–44), when Chola armies reached the Ganges and the Malay archipelago. The dynasty remained the paramount power in south India until the mid-13th century, when Hoysala and Pandya incursions and the rise of Vijayanagar eventually destroyed its claims.

Subjects: World History.

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