circular histogram

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rose diagram


Florence Nightingale (1820—1910) reformer of Army Medical Services and of nursing organization


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The natural alternative to the histogram for illustrating grouped cyclic data. Apparently first used by Florence Nightingale as a means of representing the deaths in the Crimean War. See also rose diagram.

Circular histogram. Florence Nightingale invented this diagram to illustrate that the main cause of death in the Crimean War was disease rather than the enemy. The reduction in deaths after March 1855 illustrates the efficacy of Nightingale's measures to reduce disease.

Subjects: Probability and Statistics.

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