Differences of values and interests between social groups based upon their location in the social class system and the cultural and economic relations of that system. Sport, despite its aspirations to meritocratic, egalitarian bases has usually continued to express social and cultural divisions according to gender and race, and social class. National surveys of sport participation in the UK, for instance, confirm the way that sport reproduces class divisions, acting as a form of cultural capital. The same is true for spectator sports, and for all levels of sport, examples abound across societies and cultures: NASCAR as blue-collar culture in the USA; Rugby League with its strong working-class base in England and Australia; polo as an upper-class enclave in England, the USA, and Argentina. See also class.
Subjects: Sport and Leisure.