American landscape-architect. With Robert Morris Copeland (1830–74) he designed several cemeteries including Oak Grove, Gloucester, MA (1854), and Sleepy Hollow, Concord, MA (1855). He worked with Olmsted on the design of Prospect Park, Brooklyn, NYC, from 1865 before moving to Chicago, IL, in 1869, where he set up a new firm with William Merchant (1843–1914). The 1870s saw his most creative period: he published Landscape Architecture as applied to the Wants of the West (1873) in which he argued for the need to lay out broad tree-lined boulevards in order to beautify the towns of the Mid-West, and defined landscape architecture as the art of ordering land conveniently, economically, and beautifully to best adapt it to the needs of society. In 1886 he moved to Minneapolis, MN, where he designed the fine St Paul Minneapolis Park System (1877–95), argued for the preservation of the Minnehaha Falls, and made an enormous contribution to civic design. He also presented a paper on The Influence of Parks on the Character of Children (1898), believing in the beneficial effects of landscape design.
Landscape Architecture, xx (1929), 99–110;Jane Turner (1996)
Subjects: Architecture — Art.