Frederic Edward Clements


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  • Plant Sciences and Forestry
  • Ecology and Conservation


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An American botanist and ecologist whose Research Methods in Ecology (1905) was the first work to deal fully with field experiments. Clements maintained that a plant community develops by constant adjustments of the relationships among species (i.e. a succession) to an optimal state, the climax community, and that a plant community may in some sense by regarded as a superorganism. See also Tansley, Arthur George.

Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Ecology and Conservation.

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