(b St Petersburg, 1882; d Cape Town, 1953).
Eng. conductor and composer, born in Russ. of Eng. parents (not Anglo‐Russian, as often stated). Cond. opera at Leipzig, Elberfeld, and Dresden. London début 1910 (LSO), CG 1914 (Tristan). Cond. of opera at St Petersburg 1911–18 during which time became close friend of Scriabin. Returned to Eng. 1919, conducting opera with Beecham, BNOC, Leeds Fest., etc. Also cond. much in USA. Settled in S. Africa 1946. Comps. incl. operas Samuel Pepys (1929) and Pickwick (1936). As a cond. was at his best in Russ. mus. and Wagner, but cond. f.ps. of Vaughan Williams's rev. London Symphony (1920), Bax's 1st Symphony (1922), and Holst's Choral Symphony (1925).