1. Any changes in the thinking of individuals or groups attributed to specific causes.
2. In relation to the mass media, influences of the use of particular media on the mental processes of users—one focus of academic media research within the effects tradition. Gavriel Salomon (born 1938), an Israeli psychologist, argued that media differ in how much cognitive elaboration they involve and in the kinds of mental processes they call on. See also elaboration likelihood model.