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Tiberius (42—37 bc) Roman emperor ad 14–37

Vespasian (9—79 ad)

Pliny the Younger (c. 61—112 ad) Roman statesman and scholar


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Under the Roman republic distinguished politicians influenced the elections of magistrates by open canvassing on behalf of friends. This practice was continued by emperors, and, when done in absence, by letter or by posting a list of recommended candidates, was known as commendatio. This method became normal when the emperor was infirm, or absent. Such candidātī Caesaris were normally sure of success; that made Tiberius careful to limit their numbers and delicate in his handling of the consulship. However, Vespasian, in order to give his candidates a better chance, had them voted on separately. Any pretence that imperial influence was not decisive disappeared by the end of the 1st cent.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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