The government policies affecting foreign trade. This covers the use of tariffs, trade subsidies, quotas, voluntary export restraint agreements, and other non-tariff barriers to trade, restrictions on rights of establishment for foreign businesses, and the regulation of international trade in services such as insurance. The issues of commercial policy between governments are often negotiated through the World Trade Organization or regional groups such as the European Union or the North American Free Trade Agreement as well as directly, in bilateral or multilateral agreements. See also protectionism.
Subjects: Economic History.