The movement from suburban or rural locations to the place of work and back. In a Montreal-based study, Shearmur (2006) Urb. Geog. 27, 4 concludes that differences in commuting length between different places of work are, by and large, independent of possible explanatory factors (such as residential location, economic sector, occupation, and income). Despite their shorter average overall commutes, women travel farther than men to reach jobs in the CBD (Shearmur op. cit.). Murata and Thisse (2005) CEPR Disc. Paper 4936 find that low transportation costs lead to the dispersion of economic activities. Elias et al. (2003) Reg. Studs 37, 8 find that accessibility to job openings in surrounding regions significantly increases the likelihood of commuting, but that labour mobility decreases with access to job opportunities in neighbouring regions.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.