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The concept that a single model may not be adequate to explain all the observations made of atomic or subatomic systems in different experiments. For example, electron diffraction is best explained by assuming that the electron is a wave (see de Broglie wavelength), whereas the photoelectric effect is described by assuming that it is a particle. The idea of two different but complementary concepts to treat quantum phenomena was first put forward by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1855–1962) in 1927.

Subjects: Chemistry.

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