Small instr. with bellows similar to accordion but with hexagonal ends and studs (no kbd.). The bellows are opened and closed by the hands, the pressure created causing metallic reeds to vibrate when selected by operation of the studs by the player's fingers. Made in SATB sizes, each with range of approx. an octave. Said to have been invented by Charles Wheatstone (1802–75) in 1825 and patented as ‘symphonium’ in 1829. First to play it at a public concert was Giulio Regondi (1822–72), who lived in Eng. from 1831 and toured Europe as concertina player 1846. He wrote 2 concs. and shorter pieces for it. Ives and Grainger have included it in their scores.