French Dominican theologian. He developed a passionate interest in ecclesiology and ecumenism. In a controversial article he ascribed the alienation of French culture from the Church to the latter's ‘disfigured face’. He wrote a number of books on the nature of the Church, in 1950 appealing for a reform of its structures by a ‘return to the sources’. The publication of an article in support of the ‘worker-priest’ movement in France led in 1954 to his being forbidden to teach. With the election of John XXIII in 1958, the situation changed. Congar was appointed theological consultor to the preparatory commission of the Second Vatican Council and influenced many of its documents. In 1969 he became a member of the Pontifical International Theological Commission and in 1994 a cardinal.