Formally set up by article VI of the Quadruple Alliance, signed with the second treaty of Paris (20 November 1815). It had been foreshadowed in the treaty of Chaumont of March 1815, when the principal allies against Napoleon—Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia—resolved to remain united after the war to safeguard the peace. Congresses met four times, at Aix‐la‐Chapelle (1818), Troppau (1820), Laibach (1821), and Verona (1822). The Congress system broke down because of the divergent aims of its members, the eastern powers wishing to use it to ‘police’ Europe, Britain insisting that it was intended only to secure the peace settlement. But it foreshadowed the peacekeeping efforts of the League of Nations and the United Nations in the 20th cent.
Subjects: British History.