The Fifth Oecumenical Council, convoked by the Emp. Justinian to settle the controversy over the Three Chapters (q.v.). The Council, attended mainly by E. bishops, condemned the Three Chapters and anathematized their authors. Meanwhile Pope Vigilius, who refused to attend the Council, drew up the so-called ‘Constitutum’; this condemned 60 propositions of Theodore of Mopsuestia but refused to anathematize his person, on the ground that he had not been condemned at Ephesus (431) or Chalcedon (451) and that it was not the custom of the Church to condemn the dead. Pressed by the Emperor, Vigilius finally agreed to accept the Council and annulled his former decisions in favour of the Three Chapters.