A number of secret assurances given by Britain and France. In their concern to prevent Russia from concluding a separate peace with Germany, they promised that Constantinople and the Dardanelles would be incorporated into the Russian Empire. This concession had eluded Tsarist Russia despite its efforts for over a century. In 1918 the Bolsheviks published the agreement, deeply embarrassing the Allies. Knowledge of the agreement also strengthened Atatürk's determination and moral right to regain Constantinople for the new Turkish Republic, even at the risk of war with the Allies.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).