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The process whereby heat is transferred from one part of a liquid or gas to another, by movement of the fluid itself. Convection carries excess heat from the earth's surface and distributes it through the troposphere (Fanaki (1971) Boundary-Layer Met. 1, 3; Takayabu et al. (2006) J. Met. Soc. Japan 84A).

Thermal convection

(free convection) is propelled by buoyancy (R. Barry and R. Chorley2003). Mechanical convection (forced convection) is the upward movement of an air parcel over mountains, at fronts, or because of turbulence(Sorbjan (2006) Boundary-Layer Met. 119, 1). Kijazi and Reason (2005) Theoret. & Appl. Climatol. 82, 3–4 observe that wet conditions during El Niño years are associated with enhanced convection (convection with a higher Bowen ratio). See Ludlam and Scorer (2006) Qly. J. Royal Met. Soc. 79, 341.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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