1 The meeting of tectonic plates. See Rosenbaum (2002) Tectonophys. 359, 1–2 on the convergence of Africa with Europe, and Gelabert et al. (2004) Geologica Acta 2, 3 on the convergence of the Indoaustralian and Eurasian plates.
2 In meteorology, air streams flowing to meet each other. An area of convergence is an area of rising air. Convergence can occur aloft over dense, cold air and is not necessarily confined to a layer bounded by the surface. Byers and Rodebush (1948) J. Meteor. 5 were the first to show a correlation between convective rainfall and convergence of low-level winds. These areas of low-level convergence were often restricted to well-defined lines of convergence with widths of the order of 1–2 km (Crook and Klemp (2000) J. Atmos. Scis 57, 6). In the upper troposphere, convergence causes air to subside, creating anticyclonic conditions at ground level (Hastenrath (2007) Dynam. Atmos. & Oceans 43, 1–2).
3 Within human geography, the use of the same production methods or practices by firms operating in different national-institutional spaces. Gertler (2001) J. Econ. Geog. 1, 1 describes the convergence between Anglo-American, German, and Japanese models of economic growth, and Domosh (2004) TIBG24, 4 explores the convergence of economic and cultural approaches to imperialism. See also A. Leyshon and J. Pollard (2000).