An African American sociologist from Trinidad who produced a controversial critique of the caste interpretation of race relations that had gained popularity in post-war American sociology. In his book Caste, Class, and Race (1948) he stressed the need to consider the link between racism and the social and economic system. By tracing racism to the origins and dynamics of capitalism as a world system he provided a materialist interpretation of race. He also wrote Foundations of Capitalism (1959), Capitalism and American Leadership (1962), and Capitalism as a System (1964). Subsequently, some Marxists have criticized his theoretical reading of capitalism.