(b Mannheim, 1771; d London, 1858).
Ger.‐born pianist, composer, and teacher, descendant of distinguished mus. family, most of whom worked in Eng. Came to London when 3 years old and became pupil of Clementi 1783–4, having made début as pianist in London, Apr. 1781. Toured Europe 1788–91 and 1799–1800, meeting Haydn and Beethoven. High reputation in London as pf. teacher; pubd. first book of Studies (eventually composing 84) in 1804. These Studies are still in use, having survived his 105 sonatas and 9 concs. In 1824, with 2 partners, founded publishing firm of J. B. Cramer and Co., remaining until 1842. (After Cramer's death this firm added manufacture of pfs. to its activities.) Founder‐member and dir., Phil. Soc. 1813, and one of orig. partners of Chappell & Co., who issued his Studies from 1812.