1. Theories associated with the neo-Marxist Frankfurt school which involve the ideological analysis of society and culture. Influenced by Marxist theory and Freudian psychoanalytic theory.
2. Any theory which takes a critical view of society and adopts an ideological focus, typically associated with an emphasis on the analytical importance of sociohistorical context, an emancipatory agenda, and reflexivity.
3. Loosely, literary or aesthetic theory in general.