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Disturbances and the rearrangement of clasts within soils and subsoils as a result of freeze–thaw processes in periglacial conditions. Convection currents and pressure caused by ice crystals in subsoils that refreeze after a seasonal thaw act to rotate stones and soil particles, with the result that they show marked structuring. Such structures, for example ice‐wedges, pingos, stripes, stone rings, and involutions, can be misidentified as archaeological features.

Subjects: Archaeology.

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