custom and practice

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Consists of informal work rules that grow up over time and come to be accepted and taken for granted by workers and managers. Many customary rules originate in concessions granted by lower-level managers and form part of an exchange in which managers secure cooperation in return for concessions on timekeeping, work-pace, and the operation of payment systems. They may come to be regarded as constraints and restrictive practices by managers, however, and the restructuring of business in recent years has led to an attack on many customary work rules.

Subjects: Human Resource Management.

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